How many types of cartridges and turntables

The world of vinyl records is a vibrant and diverse one, with a wide array of cartridges and turntables available to cater to audiophiles, DJs, and music lovers of all kinds. In this article, we’ll take a journey through the exciting realm of turntables and cartridges, exploring the various types and what makes each unique.

Types of Turntables

  1. Belt-Drive Turntables: Belt-drive turntables use a rubber belt to connect the motor to the platter. This design reduces motor vibrations, resulting in less noise and better audio quality. Belt-drive turntables are popular among audiophiles for their high-fidelity sound.
  2. Direct-Drive Turntables: Direct-drive turntables have the motor directly connected to the platter, offering more consistent speed and torque. These turntables are preferred by DJs for their quick start/stop capabilities and durability.
  3. Idler-Drive Turntables: Less common today, idler-drive turntables use a rubber wheel between the motor and the platter. They were popular in the mid-20th century and are known for their unique sound characteristics, although they can be noisy.

Types of Cartridges

  1. Moving Magnet (MM) Cartridges: MM cartridges are among the most common and affordable options. They use a tiny magnet attached to the stylus cantilever, which induces a voltage as it moves near fixed coils. MM cartridges are known for their warm and balanced sound.
  2. Moving Coil (MC) Cartridges: MC cartridges use a tiny coil attached to the stylus cantilever, moving within a magnetic field. These cartridges offer exceptional detail and clarity but require a high-quality phono preamp due to their low output.
  3. Moving Iron (MI) Cartridges: MI cartridges combine elements of both MM and MC designs. They provide a compromise between the warmth of MM and the detail of MC cartridges, making them a popular choice for audiophiles.
  4. Ceramic Cartridges: These are an older cartridge technology, known for their durability but not renowned for audio quality. They were common in vintage record players.
  5. Strain Gauge Cartridges: Strain gauge cartridges use a different principle; they measure the strain on a tiny wire rather than generating a voltage. They offer extremely low distortion but require specialized equipment and are less common.
  6. Mono Cartridges: Designed for playing monaural (mono) records, these cartridges are optimized for reproducing the single-channel audio found on older vinyl records. They help eliminate surface noise and enhance the clarity of mono recordings.
  7. High-Output vs. Low-Output: Cartridges can also be categorized based on their output level. High-output cartridges generate a stronger signal, making them compatible with a wider range of phono preamps, while low-output cartridges require a high-quality phono preamp.


The world of turntables and cartridges is a rich and varied one, offering options for every taste, budget, and listening preference. Whether you’re a vinyl purist seeking the highest fidelity sound, a DJ looking for precision and durability, or a casual listener looking to enjoy the nostalgia of vinyl, there’s a turntable and cartridge combination to suit your needs. Exploring the nuances of these components can be a fascinating journey, leading to a deeper appreciation of the art of analog audio playback.

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