How do you align a cartridge?

How do you align a cartridge?

Vinyl records have made a remarkable resurgence in recent years, offering music enthusiasts a unique and nostalgic way to experience their favorite tunes. However, to fully appreciate the rich and warm sound that vinyl records can deliver, it’s essential to ensure that your turntable cartridge is correctly aligned. Proper cartridge alignment plays a pivotal role in preserving the longevity of your records and maximizing the audio quality. In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the steps required to align a cartridge, from understanding the basics to the practical techniques needed for perfect alignment.

Section 1: Understanding the Basics

1.1 The Role of the Cartridge

Before diving into the alignment process, it’s essential to understand the cartridge’s role in the vinyl playback system. The cartridge is the component responsible for translating the physical grooves on a vinyl record into an electrical signal that can be amplified and played through speakers. Proper alignment ensures that the stylus (needle) accurately tracks the grooves, minimizing wear and distortion while maximizing audio fidelity.

1.2 Types of Cartridges

There are two primary types of cartridges: moving magnet (MM) and moving coil (MC). The alignment process is similar for both types, but it’s crucial to identify which type you have before proceeding. MC cartridges tend to be more sensitive and require more precise alignment.

Section 2: Tools You’ll Need

2.1 Alignment Protractor

To align a cartridge accurately, you’ll need an alignment protractor. There are various protractors available, such as Baerwald, Stevenson, and Löfgren, each with its own geometry. You should choose a protractor that matches the recommended alignment geometry for your specific turntable and cartridge.

2.2 Screwdriver and Wrench

You may need a screwdriver and wrench to make adjustments to the cartridge’s mounting screws and tonearm.

2.3 Tracking Force Gauge

A tracking force gauge is essential for setting the correct tracking force, which is the downward pressure applied by the stylus on the record. Tracking force is crucial for proper tracking and minimizing record wear.

Section 3: Preparing Your Turntable

3.1 Leveling Your Turntable

Start by ensuring that your turntable is perfectly level. An uneven surface can lead to tracking and alignment issues. Use a spirit level to make adjustments as needed.

3.2 Setting the Anti-Skate

Anti-skate is a mechanism that counteracts the tendency of the tonearm to move toward the center of the record. Consult your turntable’s manual for instructions on setting the appropriate anti-skate force for your cartridge.

Section 4: Aligning the Cartridge

4.1 Mounting the Cartridge

Begin by mounting the cartridge onto the headshell of your tonearm. Use the screws provided and tighten them securely, but not excessively. Make sure the cartridge is positioned parallel to the headshell.

4.2 Aligning with the Protractor

Now, it’s time to use the alignment protractor. Place the protractor on the turntable platter and secure it in place. Align the cartridge stylus with the gridlines or reference points on the protractor, following the specific alignment geometry recommended for your turntable and cartridge.

4.3 Setting the Overhang

The overhang is the distance from the stylus tip to the spindle of the turntable. Adjust the cartridge position forward or backward to achieve the correct overhang, as specified by your turntable’s manual or the protractor.

4.4 Adjusting the Tracking Force

Use the tracking force gauge to set the appropriate tracking force for your cartridge. This information can usually be found in the cartridge’s documentation. It’s crucial to set the tracking force accurately, as too much or too little force can damage your records and affect sound quality.

4.5 Fine-Tuning the Alignment

After making the initial adjustments, listen to a test record track and assess the sound quality. Fine-tune the alignment by making small adjustments to the cartridge’s position and tracking force until you achieve the best possible sound quality and minimal distortion.

Section 5: Additional Tips and Considerations

5.1 Check for Azimuth

Azimuth refers to the alignment of the cartridge’s cantilever (the part that holds the stylus) in relation to the record surface. Some tonearms have an azimuth adjustment feature, which you can use to ensure proper alignment.

5.2 Regular Maintenance

Cartridge alignment is not a one-time process. Over time, the cartridge’s alignment may drift due to various factors, including wear and tear. It’s advisable to periodically check and readjust the alignment to maintain optimal performance.

5.3 Seek Professional Assistance

If you’re unsure about the alignment process or encounter difficulties, don’t hesitate to seek professional assistance from an experienced turntable technician. They can provide expert guidance and ensure that your cartridge is perfectly aligned.


Properly aligning your turntable cartridge is a crucial step in achieving the best possible audio quality and preserving your precious vinyl records. By understanding the basics, gathering the necessary tools, and following the step-by-step alignment process outlined in this guide, you can enjoy a rich and immersive listening experience that vinyl records are known for. Remember that patience and attention to detail are key to achieving optimal cartridge alignment, and regular maintenance will help you continue enjoying your vinyl collection for years to come.

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